Advanced Placement United States History
Study Guide for the APUSH Exam
NOTE: The following outline covers the salient topics that might well appear on the APUSH exam. It is not, nor is it intended to be exclusive. It should be used only as a reference and study guide. It is not a substitute for diligent course work and review.
I. English Background to colonization
a. Economic Institutions – Mercantilism
b. Patterns of Colonization
i. Joint Stock companies
II. Settlement of the English Colonies
i. Powhatan and Virginia Indians
ii. Captain John Smith
iii. Lawes Divine and Martiall
iv. John Rolfe – Tobacco
v. Headright system
1. Indentured Servitude
vi. House of Burgesses
vii. Bacon’s Rebellion
b. Maryland -- The Calverts – refuge for English Catholics
i. The Pilgrims
ii. William Bradford’s Leadership
iii. Mayflower Compact
d. Massachusetts Bay Colony
i. The Puritans
ii. Massachusetts Bay Colony
iii. John Winthrop – "a city upon a hill
iv. Trading company became provincial government
v. Anne Hutchinson
e. Rhode Island
i. Roger Williams
III. Indians In New England
a. White-Indian relations
c. Pequot War
d. King Philip’s War
IV. Effects of English Civil War
a. New England Confederation formed.
b. Maryland Toleration Act
c. Restoration Act’s effects in the colonies.
V. Restoration brought new Proprietary Colonies
a. The Carolinas
i. Indian Relations in Carolinas
1. Tuscarora War
2. Yamassee War
b. New York
i. Origins as New Netherland
ii. English Takeover
iii. The Iroquois War
c. New Jersey
i. William Penn – Penn’s Frames of Government
i. James Oglethorpe
ii. Philanthropic experiment and military buffer
COLONIAL WAYS OF LIFE
I. British Folkways brought to America
a. Social systems
c. British cultural legacy
II. Population Patterns
a. Rapid population growth
b. Earlier marriage age in Colonies than in England – greater frequency of pregnancies.
c. Lower death rate in colonies – result of scatters settlements, younger population, ample food.
d. High mortality rate in early years of colonies made children more self-reliant
e. Family patterns
i. New England
ii. Southern Colonies
f. Importance of family ties
g. Role of women less restricted than in Europe
III. Sectional Differences
i. Warm climate, fertile soil led to development of staple crops
1. tobacco, rice, indigo, lumber, naval stores, furs, wool, cattle were chief exports.
2. Land policy based on headright system
3. Indentured servitude solved labor problem
ii. Slavery developed in Southern colonies.
1. Different from slavery elsewhere
2. Ethnic diversity of slaves.
3. Perseverance of African influences
4. Effect of color in determining groups relegated to slavery.
iii. The gentry
1. Church of England was established church.
2. Lack of clergy placed much control in hands of laymen
b. The New England Colonies
i. Transformation of English village into New England town.
1. No headrights or indentured servitude.
2. System of land division used – assigned to individual families.
ii. Puritan Houses
iii. Exports developed in lieu of farm products
iv. Shortage of hard currency for trade
1. Effects of use of paper money
2. Efforts of Parliament to outlaw paper money.
v. Puritan reaction to worldly pleasures.
vi. Puritan religion
1. Form of organization in churches.
2. Covenant theory of government
3. Nature of church-state relationship
vii. Evidence of strains within Puritan community in late seventeenth century
1. Economic strains developed
2. Frequent challenges to authority
3. Development of the Halfway Covenant
4. Witchcraft Hysteria
c. The Middle Colonies
i. Reflected elements of both Southern and New England colonies
ii. Products for export
iii. Land system used.
iv. Ethnic elements represented in population
IV. Other social and intellectual features of the Colonies
a. Isolation of colonies
b. Urban groupings and stratification.
c. Nature of town and city governments.
d. Means of transportation
f. Early Newspapers and editorial freedom
i. Earliest newspapers
ii. Impact of Zenger trial on freedom of the press.
g. Impact of the Enlightenment
i. Benjamin Franklin and others.
ii. Developments in Education
iii. Impact of the Great Awakening
1. George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards
2. Impact of movement on churches and schools.
3. Long range impact of Great Awakening and the Enlightenment.
AMERICA IN THE BRITISH EMPIRE
I. English Agencies of Colonial Policy
a. Overall policy not coherent or efficient.
b. Efforts to control colonial trade during Protectorate:
c. Colonial consolidation by Restoration Government.
i. Theory of mercantilism
ii. Navigation Acts of the Restoration
iii. Lords of Trade created by Charles II.
iv. Customs collections tightened
v. Creation of Dominion of New England
FROM EMPIRE TO INDEPENDENCE
I. Impact Of British victory in the Great War for Empire
a. Rumblings of American nation
b. Retaliation of British Government for colonial trading with enemy
i. Imperial forces won the war while colonials traded with enemy.
ii. Writs of Assistance used to stop illegal trade.
c. Problems of managing defense in newly captured lands to north and east.
II. Problem of Western Lands acquired in 1763
a. Indian uprisings in Ohio region
b. Proclamation of 1763
i. Kept British settlers out of lands beyond Appalachians.
ii. Quebec created in western area.
c. Treaties with Indians in 11768 gave British entry into Ohio region.
d. Lands speculators sought to enter new lands.
III. Revenues needed to pay for British troops in the West
a. Grenville program
i. Customs agents sent to America.
ii. Naval patrol of coasts.
iii. Vice-Admiralty in Halifax had jurisdiction over colonies.
iv. Sugar Act of 1764 cut molasses taxes in half
v. Currency Act of 1764 – extended prohibition of paper money to all colonies.
vi. Stamp Act – 1765
vii. Quartering Act
b. Colonial Reaction
i. Grenville program appeared to herald tyranny.
ii. "No taxation without representation."
iii. British response of "virtual representation."
IV. Stamp Act Crisis:
a. Impact on most articulate colonists
b. Intimidation of stamp agents to encourage resignations.
c. Adoption of non-importation agreements.
d. Stamp Act Congress – October 1765.
e. Grenville ministry replaced by Rockingham
f. Repeal of tax—passage of Declaratory Act, 1766.
V. Townshend Duties
a. Townshend’s Acts
i. Suspended N.Y. Assembly
ii. Revenue Act
iii. Set up Board of customs Commissioners
iv. Creation of additional vice-admiralty courts.
v. Use made of duties collected.
b. Colonial reaction to Townshend’s Acts:
i. John Dickinson’s opposition to any parliamentary taxation to levy revenue.
ii. Sam Adams and the Sons of Liberty
iii. James Otis’s Circular Letter
iv. Customs Racketeering
v. Rise of Lord North in the Parliament.
vi. Boston massacre
vii. Parliament repealed all Townshend duties except tax on tea, April 1770.
viii. Two years of relative peace.
VI. Colonial Dissent
a. Gasped (Patrol boat) burned, 1772
b. Committees of correspondence formed.
c. Lord North’s Tea Act of 1773
i. Terms of the act
ii. Colonials refusal to accept the tea
iii. Boston Tea Party.
VII. British Response – Coercive Acts
a. Closed port of Boston.
b. Allowed trials of government officials to be transferred to England.
c. New quartering act for soldiers.
d. Massachusetts Council and law-enforcement offers made appointive.
e. No town meetings
f. Quebec Act also fueled movement for colonial unity.
VIII. Colonial Response
a. Support for Boston
b. First Continental Congress; September, 1774
i. All colonies present except Georgia
ii. Rejected plan for union
iii. Endorsed Suffolk Resolves
iv. Adopted Declaration of American Rights
v. Adopted Continental Association
vi. Called another congress for May 1775.
IX. British Response
a. Declared Massachusetts in rebellion.
b. Loyal authorities losing control.
c. Gage moved to confiscate supplies in Concord.
d. Battle of Lexington
X. Other acts of protest
a. Second Continental Congress
b. Seizures in New York.
c. Congress adopted Continental Army
d. Battle of Bunker Hill
e. Olive Branch Petition and Declaration for Taking Up Arms
f. Congress gradually assumed functions of general government.
g. Thomas Paine’s Common Sense January, 1776
h. Declaration of Independence – July 1776
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
I. American society at War
a. Division of support in colonies
i. Three groups – patriots, Tories, and indifferent middle group.
ii. Tories’ cause hurt by licentiousness of British troops.
iii. Patriot groups materialized when troops were needed then vanished.
b. Analysis of the Colonial war effort;
i. The militia
ii. The Continental Army
iii. Supplies obtained directly from farmers.
iv. Financing of the war
1. Heavy reliance on worthless paper money.
2. Farmers preferred to sell goods for British gold and silver.
II. Setbacks for the British
a. Problems of British war effort.
b. Three-pronged attack in New York led to turning point of the war.
i. Howe took Philadelphia
ii. Washington retired to Valley Forge for winter.
iii. Burgoyne moved south and west in New York.
iv. Battle of Saratoga
c. Saratoga escalated war to worldwide proportions
i. French entered war to help Americans.
ii. Spain entered as ally of France
iii. Butch brought in by British attack on them.
d. Cornwallis defeated at Yorktown
i. Nature of the Yorktown campaign.
ii. Results and their significance.
III. Treaty of Paris – terms
IV. The Revolution at home
a. Nature of revolutionary concepts developed in America.
i. Nature of republican governmental ideas.
ii. Lack of a feudal tradition
b. Changes in State governments
i. Concept of written constitutions.
ii. Concept of constitutional convention
c. Articles of Confederation
i. Difficulties in obtaining ratification.
ii. Powers of central government under the Articles.
V. Impact of Revolution on equality in the colonies.
a. Impact of independence on lower socio-economic groups.
b. Impact of revolution on slavery.
c. Impact of revolution on women.
d. Impact of revolution on religion.
VI. Sense of nationalism inspired by Revolution.
a. Variety of heroes and legends from the war.
b. First generation of American artists.
c. Impact of nationalism on education.
i. Development of state universities.
ii. Development of general system of education.
iii. Work of Noah Webster.
TOWARD A MORE PERFECT UNION
I. Government of the Confederation Period.
a. Called the "critical period."
b. Nature of congressional administration during the war.
c. Financial problems of the government.
i. Use of public debt to secure support for nation.
ii. Scheme for national bank failed –did not receive unanimous approval.
iii. Newburgh Conspiracy
iv. Growth of domestic debt from $11 million to $28 million.
d. Development of a land policy.
i. Direct congressional authority prevailed.
ii. Geographic areas covered by policy
iii. Early land ordinances set precedents for future treatment of territories.
iv. The Northwest Ordinance
v. Indian Treaties made to gain claim to western lands.
e. Effects of the war on the economy
i. Fighting seldom-affected farming except to bring price increases.
ii. Merchants suffered more.
iii. Trade treaties opened new markets.
f. Diplomatic Problems
i. With Great Britain
1. British retained forts in North.
2. Americans refused to pay prewar debts to British.
3. Treatment of Loyalists.
ii. Problems with Spain
1. Southern boundary
2. Right of U.S. to navigate to mouth of Mississippi River.
g. Efforts of states to exclude imperial trade.
h. Effects of shortage of cash.
i. Demands for legal paper currency.
ii. Depreciation of paper currency varied.
iii. Rhode Island legal tender paper money declared unconstitutional.
i. Shay’s Rebellion
i. Farmer’s demanded paper money to pay off taxes.
ii. Militia scattered "Shay’s Army."
iii. Legislature lowered taxes next year.
j. Demand grows for stronger government.
II. Adopting the Constitution
a. Preliminary Steps to the Convention
i. Mount Vernon Conference – 1785.
ii. Annapolis Meeting – 1786.
iii. Call for constitutional convention.
b. Nature of the Convention
i. Nature of the delegates
ii. James Madison
iii. Political philosophy represented at Convention.
iv. Secrecy of proceedings.
c. Major issues in drafting Constitution
i. Basis for representation of states
1. Virginia Plan
2. New Jersey Plan
3. Great Compromise
ii. Disputes between North and South over counting of slaves.
1. Three-fifths compromise
2. Slave trade could not be prohibited for twenty years.
iii. Principles incorporated into the constitution.
1. Separation of Powers.
2. Nature of office of president.
3. Nature of the Judicial Branch.
4. Examples of countervailing forces in the Government.
5. Ratification provisions.
III. The Fight for Ratification:
a. Federalists (nationalists) vs. Antifederalists
b. Charles Beard’s argument for economic motivation of the delegates
i. Founding Fathers economic interests.
ii. Arguments against Beard’s thesis.
c. Arguments of The Federalist for ratification.
d. Views of Federalists and Antifederalists.
i. The pattern of ratification.
ii. Smaller states acted first.
iii. New Hampshire was ninth state.
iv. Efforts to convince Virginia and New York.
v. North Carolina joined in 1789; Rhode Island held out until 1790.
WASHINGTON AND ADAMS ADMINISTRATIONS
I. Organizing New Government
a. Structure of Government
i. Cabinet posts and appointments
ii. Judiciary Act of 1789 –created subordinate federal court system.
b. Bill of Rights added to Constitution
c. Revenue for the Government
i. Import duties
ii. Protection of American trade
II. Alexander Hamilton’s Vision of America
a. Report on Public Credit
i. Fund federal debt at face value
ii. Federal assumption of state debts
iii. Excise tax on liquor
iv. Proposal for national bank
v. Report on Manufactures
b. Reactions to Hamilton’s proposals:
i. Concern about rewarding speculators
ii. Sectional differences
i. Location of national capital to be in South.
d. Hamilton’s Plan for a National Bank
i. Uniform currency
ii. Source of capital for business
iii. Perform banking function of Government
e. Controversy over Bank proposal:
i. Jefferson and Madison opposed – no provision in Constitution for bank.
ii. Strict vs. broad construction of constitution
iii. Political parties develop as result: Federalist (Hamilton) and Democratic Republicans. (Jefferson and Madison)
III. Crises Foreign and Domestic
i. French Revolution
ii. Washington’s proclamation of neutrality.
iii. Actions of Citizen Genêt
b. Jay’s Treaty
c. Frontier Problems
i. Battle of Fallen Timbers – Treaty of Greenville
d. Whiskey Rebellion
i. Basis for Rebellion
ii. Army sent to disperse
e. Pinckney’s Treaty
i. Spanish intrigues in the West
ii. Terms of treaty
f. Washington’s Farewell
i. Warns U.S. to avoid entangling alliances with foreign governments.
IV. The Adams Administration
a. Election of 1796
b. Troubles with France
i. XYZ affair
ii. Creation of navy
c. Alien and Sedition Acts
ii. Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
V. Election of 1800
b. Resolved in House of Representatives
c. Midnight Judicial Appointments by Adams – Judiciary Act of 1801
d. Peaceful transfer of power from one party to another.
JEFFERSON AND MADISON
I. Jefferson as President
a. "Revolution of 1800" – Orderly transfer of power
b. Jefferson and the Judiciary
i. Repeal of Judiciary Act of 1801
ii. Importance of Marbury vs. Madison
c. Conflicts with Federalist Policies
i. Acceptance of National Bank
ii. Slave trade outlawed – 1808
d. Louisiana Purchase
i. Interest in territory – desire to purchase New Orleans
ii. Republican reaction to Constitutional Issues – Jefferson justified under treaty making power.
e. Exploring the Continent
i. Lewis and Clark
ii. Zebulon Pike
f. Political Schemes of the Federalist Camp
i. Thomas Pickering and the Essex Junto – considered secession.
ii. Burr’s duel with Hamilton – ends Burr’s political career
II. Divisions within the Republican Party
a. Election of Jefferson and Clinton – 1804
b. Emergence of John Randolph and the Tertium Quid
i. Randolph’s break with Jefferson
c. The Burr Conspiracy
i. Excursion into the West
ii. Disposition of charge of treason
1. Jefferson’s use of "executive privilege
2. Rigid definition of treason adopted
III. War in Europe
a. Napoleon (France) vs. England: Battle of Elephant and Whale
b. Harassment of shipping by Britain and France
i. Impressment of Sailors
ii. Mutual blockades
c. The Jefferson Embargo
i. Nature of Embargo Act
ii. Impact of the Embargo
d. Madison and Clinton elected – 1808
e. The drift toward war
i. Non-Intercourse Act
ii. Intrigues with Britain and France over trade restrictions
f. Madison’s War Message
IV. The War of 1812
a. Causes of the War
i. Demand for neutral rights
ii. Geographical distribution of war sentiment
1. Farming regions and shippers
iii. Indian concerns
iv. War Hawks – desire to annex Florida and Canada
v. National Honor
b. Progress of the War
1. Niagara contingent refused to fight in Canada
2. Perry’s exploits on Lake Erie
3. Harrison defeats Tecumseh at Battle of the Thames
1. Creek aggression
2. Jackson’s raid on Creeks
c. Invasion of Washington and Baltimore – Madison forced to flee
d. Battle of New Orleans – Jackson defeats Packingham.
e. Treaty of Ghent
i. Return to status quo ante bellum
ii. Impressment not mentioned
f. The Hartford Convention
i. Composition and actions taken
ii. Consequences of the gathering
g. Aftermath of the War
i. Inspired patriotism and nationalism
ii. Reversal of roles by Federalists and Republicans
NATIONALISM AND SECTIONALISM
I. Economic Nationalism
a. National bank
i. Effects of expiration of national bank in 1811
ii. Proposal for new national bank
iii. Bank’s supporters and opponents
b. Protective Tariff
i. Proposal for Tariff of 1816.
c. Internal Improvements
i. Call for Constitutional Amendment
ii. State actions for internal improvements
iii. Calhoun’s bill and its fate
II. Era of Good Feelings
a. Election of 1816 – James Monroe
b. Party system vanishes by election of 1820 – Monroe virtually unopposed for re-election.
III. Diplomatic Developments
a. Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817) – limits naval forces on the Great Lakes
b. Convention of 1819
i. Northern boundary of Louisiana Purchase
ii. Joint Occupation of Oregon
iii. Fishing rights off Newfoundland
c. Acquisition of Florida
i. Spain powerless in Florida
ii. Jackson sent on campaign against Seminoles
iii. Reactions to Jackson’s Campaign
iv. Adams made Transcontinental treaty with Spain to acquire Florida
IV. Diminishing Political Harmony
a. Panic of 1819 – Era of Good Feelings Ends
i. Speculative Binge
ii. Easy Credit
iii. Bank of the United States added to speculative mania
iv. Wildcat Banks forced to maintain specie reserves.
b. Missouri Compromise
i. Balance of slave and free states
ii. Tallmadge resolution relating to Missouri slavery
iii. Arguments for and against slavery
iv. Compromise to admit Missouri
1. Maine and Missouri balanced each other.
2. Slavery excluded in northern Louisiana Purchase
V. Judicial Nationalism
a. Influence of John Marshall
b. Cases asserting Judicial Review
i. Marbury vs. Madison (1803)
ii. Fletcher vs. Peck (1810)
iii. Martin vs. Hunter’s Lessee (1816) and Cohens vs. Virginia (1821)
c. Protection of Contract rights in Dartmouth College vs. Woodward (1819)
d. Curbing state powers in McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)
i. "The power to tax is the power to destroy."
e. National Supremacy of Commerce in Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824)
VI. Nationalist Diplomacy
a. Negotiating Russia out of Oregon
b. Monroe Doctrine
i. Impact of Napoleonic Wars on Latin America
ii. British efforts to protect Latin America
iii. Monroe Doctrine asserted
iv. Reactions to Doctrine.
VII. One-party Politics
a. 1824 Election: Clay, Jackson, Quincy Adams
b. Race thrown into House of Representatives
i. Clay withdraws in favor of Adams; appointed Secretary of State
ii. Jackson claims "corrupt bargain."
VIII. President John Quincy Adams
a. Mistakes in Office
i. Demeaned voters
ii. Notions of royalty
iii. Tariff of 1828
1. Calhoun’s proposal to defeat tariff increase
2. Calhoun’s protest
IX. Election of 1828
a. Appeal of Jackson to different groups
b. Extension of suffrage in states.
c. Jackson won, unseated Quincy Adams
THE AGE OF ANDREW JACKSON
I. Jackson as President
b. Nature of appointments – spoils system
c. Jackson’s democratic concept of rotation in office.
d. The Peggy Eaton Affair
II. Conflict with Calhoun
a. Internal Improvements
i. Veto of Maysville Road Bill, 1830
b. The nullification issue
i. South Carolina concern about Tariff of 1828 ("Tariff of Abominations")
ii. Calhoun’s Theory of Nullification
iii. The Webster-Hayne Debate
1. Original issue of the debate
2. Views of Hayne and Webster
iv. Jackson’s toast at the Jefferson Day Dinner
c. Final break with Calhoun
i. Crawford’s letter relating Calhoun’s plan to discipline Jackson for invasion of Florida
ii. Cabinet shake-up
iii. Van Buren’s appointment to England killed by Calhoun’s tie-breaking vote.
iv. Calhoun takes lead of nullificationists
III. The Nullification Crisis
a. The tariff problem
b. South Carolina’s actions of nullification
c. Jackson’s firm response
i. Nullification proclamation
ii. Troop reinforcements
iii. Force Bill
iv. Lowered tariff
IV. Jackson’s Indian Policy
a. Jackson’s attitude toward Indians
b. Indian Removal act and treaties
c. Black Hawk War
d. Seminole War
e. Cherokee’s Trail of Tears
i. Georgia’s legal actions against Indians
ii. Supreme Court ruling: Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia
iii. Jackson’s reaction: "Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it."
iv. Cherokee removal
V. The Bank Controversy
a. Bank’s opponents
b. Jackson’s views
c. Nicholas Biddle’s attempts to recharter the Bank
d. Jackson’s grounds for veto of Bank recharter
e. Election of 1832
i. Policy/practices of Anti-Masonic party
ii. National Conventions of National Republicans and Democrats
iii. Jackson re-elected
f. Jackson’s removal of federal deposits from Bank of U.S.
i. Basis of actions
ii. Deposited in "pet" banks
iii. Changes in treasury
g. Economic reaction to removal
i. Contraction of credit in Biddle’s bank
ii. Speculative binge
iii. Increase in land sales
iv. State indebtedness
h. Bursting the bubble
i. Distribution Act
ii. Specie Circular
iii. Banks collapse
i. Political Impact – "King Andrew the First"
VI. Van Buren and the New Party System
a. Emergence of the Whigs
i. Whig philosophy
ii. Whig Coalitions
iii. Van Buren wins election
VII. Van Buren’s Administration
a. Panic of 1837
b. Proposal for Independent Treasury
VIII. Election of 1840
a. Van Buren vs. William Henry Harrison
i. Harrison launches "Log Cabin campaign."
ii. Harrison defeats Van Buren
THE DYNAMICS OF GROWTH
a. Importance of Cotton to economy
i. Invention of Cotton Gin – revolutionary impact
1. Impact on slavery
2. Encouragement of westward migration
3. Cotton became important export
b. The Westward Movement
i. Changes in Land Laws
1. Land law of 1820
2. Preemption Acto of 1830
3. Graduation Act of 1854
c. Development of Improved Iron Plow – John Deere
d. Cyrus McCormick’s mechanical reaper
II. Improvements in Transportation
a. Opening new roads
ii. National Road
b. River Transportation
iii. Growth of Canals
c. Development of railroads
i. Early railroads
ii. Water travel compared to rail
d. Ocean Transport – Clipper Ships
e. Financing Internal Improvements
i. Turnpikes funded by private investment
ii. States sponsor canals
iii. Railroads first came from private investment
iv. Federal railroad assistance
a. The Growth of Industry
i. Britain’s lead in industrial production
b. Advances in technology
i. Emphasis on practical application of science in the United States
c. Emergence of the Factory System
i. Samuel Lowell and Lowell system
1. Use of young women
2. Family system
a. Economic functions of cities
b. Leading cities of antebellum system
a. Continuing need for labor
b. Characteristics of ethnic groups
1. Irish immigrant life
2. Led to growth of Catholic Church
c. Nativist reaction to immigrants
i. Reasons for opposition
1. Order of the Star Spangled Banner ("Know-Nothing" Party)
VI. Jacksonian Inequality
a. Unequal distribution of wealth
b. Increasing social rigidity in age of common man
VII. Urban Culture
b. Performing Arts
ii. Minstrel Shows
1. Uniquely American
2. Thomas Rice and "Jump Jim Crow"
3. Christy Minstrels
4. Stephen Collins Foster
THE AMERICAN RENAISSANCE
I. Impact of Enlightenment on Nineteenth-Century America
a. Development of Deism
i. Roots in rationalism and Calvinism
ii. Nature of Deism
b. Emergence of Unitarianism
i. William Ellery Channing
ii. Nature and beliefs
c. Emergence of Universalism
II. The Second Great Awakening
b. Frontier phase of revivalism
i. Camp meetings
ii. Impact of Methodists and Baptists
iii. Spread of revivals to the frontier
c. Revivals in New York State – "Burned Over District"
i. Charles Grandison Finney
ii. Oberlin College
d. New Religious Groups
i. Rise of Mormon Church
1. Joseph Smith, Jr.
2. Persecution of Mormons
3. Move to Utah
e. The revival movement and democracy
III. Romanticism in America
i. Ralph Waldo Emerson
ii. Henry David Thoreau
IV. Flowering of American Literature
a. Nathaniel Hawthorne
b. Emily Dickinson
c. Washington Irving
d. James Fenimore Cooper
e. Edgar Allen Poe
f. William Gilmore Sims
g. Herman Melville
h. Walt Whitman
a. Demand for public schools
b. Horace Mann – first Superintendent of Education in Massachusetts
c. Education for Women
VI. Movements for Reform
i. Heavy consumption of alcohol in U.S.
ii. American Temperance Union
b. Prison reform
i. Growth of public institutions to treat social ills.
ii. Prevention and rehabilitation vs. punishment for crime
iii. Elimination of prison for debtors.
c. Reform in Treatment of Insane
i. Dorothea Dix
d. Women’s Rights
i. Catherine Beecher and the "cult of domesticity."
ii. Seneca Falls Conference (1848)
iii. Women in education and other professions
e. Utopian Communities
i. Shaker communities
ii. Oneida community
iii. Brook Farm
I. The Tyler Years
a. Harrison’s brief term – Tyler succeeds.
b. Tyler opposed Whig programs – left without a party.
c. Foreign Affairs – Problems with Great Britain
i. The Caroline Incident
ii. Suppression of African slave trade
iii. Comprises of Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1. Canada-U.S. borders settled
2. Joint patrols of African coast
II. Westward Expansion
a. Idea of "manifest destiny."
b. Western Indians
c. Spanish West
d. Mexican Revolution
i. Opened area for American expansion
ii. Mexico encouraged American settlement in Texas
1. No Slavery, pay Mexican taxes, become Catholic
2. Texans did none of three
e. Fur trappers, Mountain Men in Rockies
f. Move to Oregon Territory
i. Joint occupation with Great Britain
i. Sutter’s colony
h. Life on Overland Trail (Oregon Trail)
i. Indians rarely attacked
iii. Donner party
i. Fremont’s mapping activities
III. Annexing Texas
a. American settlements
i. Stephen F. Austin
b. Texas Independence
i. Battle of the Alamo
c. Republic of Texas
i. President Sam Houston
ii. Efforts for annexation
1. Jackson delayed recognition
IV. Election of 1844.
a. Democrats nominate dark horse – James K. Polk
b. Whigs refuse to refer to Texas question
c. Clay hedges, gives votes to Liberty party – Polk wins
V. Polk’s Presidency
a. Tyler annexes Texas after election
i. Polk’s interpretation of Monroe Doctrine
ii. "Fifty-four forty or fight"
iii. Compromise Treaty
VI. Mexican War
a. Provocation of Attack: "American Blood shed on American Soil."
b. Abraham Lincoln offered "spot resolutions" in Congress
c. Opposition to the War
i. New England
d. Progress of War
i. Taylor’s victory at Monterrey
ii. Scott captures Mexico City
c. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
i. U.S. receives Texas, California
ii. U.S. pays Mexico $15 million
THE OLD SOUTH
I. Myth and Reality in the Old South
a. Sense of sectional distinction
ii. Biracial population
iii. Highly native population – immigration minimal or nonexistent
iv. Preponderance of agriculture
b. Myth of Cotton Kingdom
i. Actual variety of staple crops
1. Cotton, also Tobacco in upper South, Indigo in colonial era; Rice in tidewater area; Sugar along Mississippi River; Hemp and Flax.
ii. Voracious demand for cotton
iii. High proportion of other agricultural products
1. Grain, potatoes, livestock
iv. Exhaustion of Soil
c. Causes for Southern lag in economic development
i. Claims that blacks were unsuited for factory work
ii. Contention that aristocratic privilege exclusively for agriculture
d. Profitability of slaves
II. White Society in the South
i. Largest ownership of slaves
ii. Working lifestyle
iii. Plantation mistress responsible for household
b. Middle Class
i. Largest group – little or no slave ownership
ii. Small farms
c. Poor Whites
i. No slaves
ii. Subject to dietary deficiencies, infection
d. Honor and violence in Old South
III. Black Society in South
a. Free Blacks – often encouraged to leave area
i. Domestic slave trade replaced foreign slave trade
ii. Plantation slave life
c. Nature of slavery as an institution
i. Religion and folklore
ii. Religion instrument of white control and black refuge.
iii. Importance of nuclear family to slaves
iv. Sexual exploitation of slaves
IV. Antislavery Movements
a. Establishment of American Colonization Society
i. Acquisition of and settlement in Liberia
b. Movement toward Abolition
i. William Lloyd Garrison – The Liberator: "I shall be harsh as justice and as uncompromising as truth."
1. Called for immediate uncompensated emancipation.
c. American Anti-Slavery Society
d. Split in Anti-slavery movement
i. Garrison and radical wing refused compromise
ii. Others only want to purge society of slavery
iii. Showdown over women’s rights in 1840.
iv. Garrison win’s right for women to participate; New Yorkers break away.
e. Black antislavery advocates
i. Conflicts over right of blacks to participate
ii. Former slaves as public speakers
1. Sojourner Truth
2. Frederick Douglass
f. Discrimination against blacks in North
V. Reactions to Anti-Slavery agitation
a. Suppression of abolitionist efforts in South
b. "Gag rule" in Congress
c. Development of Liberty Party (1840)
d. Defenses of slavery
i. Biblical arguments
ii. Inferiority of blacks
iii. Practical considerations
iv. George Fitzhugh’s comparison to northern wage slavery.
A HOUSE DIVIDED
I. Quarrels arising over property acquired during Mexican War
a. Wilmot Proviso
b. Calhoun resolutions in reaction to proviso
c. Other proposals to deal with slavery in territories
i. Extension of Missouri Compromise line
ii. Popular, or Squatter sovereignty
d. Controversy over admission of Oregon as free state.
II. Election of 1848
a. Democrats: Lewis Cass – deny power of Congress to interfere with Slavery
b. Whigs: Zachary Taylor – adopt no platform at all
c. Free Soil Party: Van Buren – oppose extension of slavery into territories. Primarily opposed to blacks more than slavery
d. Taylor wins
e. California admitted as free state
III. Compromise of 1850
a. Clay’s compromise package of eight resolutions
b. Calhoun’s response
c. Webster’s plea for Union
d. Taylor’s death
e. Fillmore succeeds Taylor – supports Clay Compromies
f. Terms of Compromise
i. Fugitive Slave Law
ii. Slave Trade forbidden in D.C.
iii. Uncle Tom’s Cabin written in response to Fugitive Slave Law
IV. Election of 1852
a. Democrats: Franklin Pearce
b. Free Soilers: John P. Hale
c. Whigs: Winfield Scott – war hero
d. Pearce wins
V. Manifest Destiny and the World Scene
a. Efforts to expand Southward
b. Ostend Manifesto
c. Achievements of American diplomacy in the Pacific
i. Opening of China to Americans
ii. Perry’s expedition to Japan
iii. Gadsden Purchase, 1853. Manifest Destiny complete.
VI. The Kansas-Nebraska Crisis
i. Idea for transcontinental railroad – to pass through Illinois, Douglas’ state.
ii. Douglas’ Nebraska Bill leads to repeal of Missouri Compromise
b. Northern Reaction to extension of slavery into West
i. Strains on Political parties
1. Creation of Republican Party
2. Whigs, Democrats split
c. The "battle" for Kansas
i. Free Soilers and pro-slavery forces attempt to promote settlement
ii. Violence in Lawrence and Pottawatomie
1. Bleeding Kansas
2. "Beecher’s Bibles"
3. Activity of John Brown in Kansas
iii. Brooks-Sumner affair in Congress. Brooks attacks Sumner with cane.
VII. The Election of 1856
a. American and Whig Parties: Fillmore
b. Republicans: John Fremont
c. Democrats: James Buchanan.
d. Buchanan elected
VIII. The Dred Scott Decision
a. Roger Taney decision: slaves not citizens; have no right to sue.
b. Constitution protects property
c. Effect: Made Missouri Compromise unconstitutional (previously repealed).
d. South demanded Federal slave code
IX. Movements for Kansas Statehood
a. Lecompton Constitution
b. Postponement of statehood
X. Lincoln-Douglas Senatorial Campaign in Illinois
a. Freeport Doctrine
b. Douglas attempts to bait Lincoln
XI. Further problems:
a. John Brown’s raid at Harper’s Ferry
b. Brown hanged – becomes martyr for anti-slavery movement
XII. Election of 1860
a. Northern Democrats nominate Douglas
b. Southern ("Rump") Democrats nominate John Breckinridge
c. Republicans nominate Lincoln
d. Constitutional Union Party supports John Bell and "preservation of union."
e. Split in Democrats gave election to Lincoln – minority President
XIII. Secession Begins
a. South Carolina, other Deep South states secede.
b. Buchanan’s reaction to secession.
c. Problems of federal property in seceded states.
d. Last attempt at compromise.
THE CIVIL WAR
I. End of the Interim Period
a. Lincoln inauguration
b. The Conflict begins
i. Resupply of Fort Sumter
ii. Opening guns of war – Anderson’s surrender
c. Lincoln’s initial steps of war
i. Call for 75,000 militiamen
ii. Blockade of Southern ports
d. Secession of upper South
i. Departure of Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina
ii. Creation of West Virginia
e. Other slave states remain in Union
i. Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, Delaware
II. Balance Sheet of War
a. North’s Advantages
iii. Farm production
iv. Transportation – railroads
b. South’s Advantage
i. Fighting on own turf
ii. Strong military leadership
iii. Southern soldiers better marksmen
c. Sea power, important advantage for North
III. The First Battle
a. Winfield Scott’s Anaconda Plan
b. Battle of Bull Run
c. Civil War as first Modern War
IV. Effort to Build Armies
a. Lincoln’s early calls for volunteers
b. Confederate Army recruitment
i. Adoption of Conscription
ii. Loopholes in Confederate Conscription
c. Union conscription
i. Bounties offered
ii. Conscription and exemptions
d. Impact of conscription
i. A spur to volunteers
ii. Exercise of central power in South
iii. Draft riots in New York
V. The War in 1862
a. Northern and Southern Strategies
b. Naval Actions
i. Ironclad ships
ii. Union seizures along Southern coasts.
c. Actions in the West
i. Grant’s move against Forts Donelson and Henry
ii. Battle of Shiloh
d. McClellan’s Peninsular Campaign
i. McClellan too cautious
ii. Advance on Richmond
iii. Lee’s attack on McClellan
iv. McClellan replaced with Gen. Halleck
e. Second Battle of Bull Run
f. Lee’s Invasion of Antietam
i. McClellan’s mistakes
ii. Lincoln’s appointment of Ambrose Burnside
g. Battle of Fredericksburg
a. Lincoln’s considerations
b. Blacks in the Military
i. Massachusetts’ 54th Regiment
c. Abolition of Slavery
VII. Women and the war
a. Traditional restraints on women loosened.
ii. Thrust into public roles
VIII. Revolutionary Impact of War
a. Power shift to the North
b. Measures passed by the North
IX. Financing the War
i. Increased tariff and excise taxes
ii. Income tax
iii. Issuance of greenbacks
i. Import and export duties
ii. Direct tax on property
iii. Bond issues
iv. Paper money
X. Confederate Diplomacy
a. Importance of diplomacy to the Confederacy – "cotton diplomacy"
b. Impact of the embargo
c. Early hopes of recognition by Britain
d. Mason and Slidell Episode
e. Confederate Raiding ships
XI. Union Politics
a. Pressure of Radicals
b. Actions of Democrats
c. Lincoln’s suspension of habeas corpus
i. Constitutional issues
ii. Vallandigham case
d. Campaign of 1864 – Lincoln vs. McClellan
i. Lincoln re-elected
XII. Wearing down the Confederacy
a. Appointment of Joseph E. Hooker to lead Northern army
b. Battle of Chancellorsville (Confederate victory)
c. Grant’s assault on Vicksburg
d. Lee’s invasion of North
e. Union victory at Chattanooga
XIII. Defeat of the Confederacy
a. Grant and Sherman pursue the War
b. Wilderness campaign
i. Grant’s strategy
ii. Siege of Petersburg
c. Sherman’s March through the South
i. Destruction of Georgia
ii. Move into South Carolina
d. Surrender at Appomattox ( 9 April 1865, Palm Sunday)
e. Lincoln Assassinated at Ford’s Theatre (14 April, 1865 (Good Friday)
I. America after the Civil War
a. Legislation to benefit northeastern businessmen and western farmers
i. Morrill Tariff
ii. National Banking Act
iii. Subsidies for north-central transcontinental railroad
iv. Homestead Act of 1862
v. Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862
b. Devastation of the South during the War hampered later growth
i. Much private and public property destroyed
ii. Confederate currency and bonds worthless
iii. $4 billion invested in labor – the slaves—wiped out.
iv. Problems of postwar agriculture
c. "Forced domesticity" of southern whites
d. Special problems of the freedmen
i. Though free, the former slaves had little with which to make a living
ii. The Freedmen’s Bureau
II. Lincoln and Reconstruction
a. Lincoln’s lenient 10 per cent plan
b. Loyal governments appeared in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana, but were not recognized by Congress
c. Arguments by Lincoln and Congress for authority over Reconstruction
d. The stricter Wade-Davis Bill
i. Pocket vetoed by Lincoln
e. Lincoln’s philosophy of Reconstruction
f. Lincoln’s assassination
III. Johnson’s plan for Reconstruction
a. Exclusion from pardon of those owning property worth over $20,000.
b. States must invalidate secession ordinance, abolish slavery, and repudiate Confederate debt
c. Most southern states met all of Johnson’s requirements
IV. Congress refused to seat senators and congressmen from Southern states.
a. Southern states had elected many ex Confederate leaders to Congress.
b. Southern states had passed repressive black codes.
V. 1866: A Critical year: Radical Republicans gain power
a. Faced with southern intransigence, moderate Republicans drifted toward Radicals.
b. Radicals: How they planned to reconstruct South
i. Conquered provinces
ii. State suicide
iii. Forfeited rights
c. Johnson began to lose battle with Congress
i. Veto of bill to extend life of Freedman’s Bureau upheld by Senate
ii. Veto of Civil Rights Act of 1866 overridden
iii. Veto of revised Freedman’s Bureau Bill overridden
iv. Congress passed Fourteenth Amendment
1. Supported Civil rights Act of 1866
2. Affirmed citizenship of former slaves
3. Privileges and Immunities clause
4. Due process of law
5. "Equal protection of the law"
d. Johnson lost support of American Public
i. Election of 1866, Republicans won 2/3 majority in each house – veto proof majority
VI. Congressional Reconstruction
a. Congress moved to protect its program from President Johnson
i. Command of the Army Act
ii. Tenure of Office Act
b. Military Construction Act
i. Former Confederate States (except Tennessee) placed in five military districts
ii. To be readmitted, states must frame new Constitutions, grant universal male suffrage, and ratify Fourteenth Amendment
c. Second and Third Reconstruction Acts
d. New governments established in Southern states
VII. Impeachment and Trial of Johnson
a. Johnson removed Secretary of War Stanton in violation of Tenure of Office Act
b. House of Representatives passed eleven Articles of Impeachment
c. Senate trial, conviction failed by one vote.
VIII. Republican Rule in the South
a. New governments established in Southern states
b. Blacks in the Reconstructed South
i. Separate churches
ii. Black families; black schools.
c. White Republicans in the South
i. Carpetbaggers – northern Republicans who allegedly came south for political and economic gain.
ii. Scalawags – southern white Republicans
IX. White Southerners reacted to Republican regimes by forming Terrorist groups
a. Ku Klux Klan
b. Prosecution under new federal laws ended most activities.
X. Southern Conservatives regained Power
a. Klan weakened Negro and Republican morale
b. North also concerned with Westward expansion, Indian wars, etc.
c. Republican control of southern states began to collapse in 1869.
d. By 1876, Radical republican regimes survived only in Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina
XI. The Grant Administration
a. Grant an inept political leader, made many unwise appointments.
b. Problem of government debt
i. Support for monetary expansion
ii. Support for monetary restriction
iii. Treasury began withdrawing greenbacks from circulation
c. Scandals in Grant Administration
i. Jay Gould and Jim Fisk tried to corner gold market
ii. Crédit Mobilier Scandal
iii. Whiskey Ring, other scandals disclosed
d. Economic Distress and Panic of 1873.
XII. Election of 18767
a. Few real issues in campaign; much mudslinging
b. Disputed vote count in three Southern states
c. Special Electoral Commission formed to resolve problem
d. Compromise of 1877
i. Rutherford B. Hayes elected President
ii. Federal Troops withdrawn from South – reconstruction over.
NEW FRONTIERS: SOUTH AND WEST
I. Economic growth in the New South
a. Textile Mills
i. Bull Durham
ii. Dukes and American Tobacco Company
II. Agriculture in the New South
a. Problems in Southern Agriculture
ii. Tenant farming
b. Credit – the crop-lien system
III. Political leaders of the New South
a. "Bourbons," often called Redeemers
i. Allied politically with eastern conservatives
b. Effects of Bourbon control
i. Greatly reduced spending on education
ii. Convict leasing
iii. Repudiation of state debts
IV. Blacks and the New South
a. Black Disenfranchisement
i. Residency requirement
ii. Disqualification for conviction of certain crimes
iii. Poll tax and other taxes must be paid
iv. Literacy test (understand portion of state constitution)
v. "Grandfather clause"
b. Segregation in the South
i. Supreme Court
1. Plessy vs. Ferguson
iii. Jim Crow legislation
iv. Lynching of Blacks
c. Two black leaders:
i. Booker T. Washington – accommodation
ii. W.E.B. DuBois – protest
V. Settlement of the West
a. Factors increasing settlement
b. Immigrants in the West
i. Buffalo Soldiers
VI. The Miner in the West
a. Great gold, silver, and copper strikes
b. Western states admitted to Union
VII. Indians in the West
a. Forced to cede lands to the government – war with United States
i. The Sioux Wars
ii. Chivington’s massacre of 450 Indians
iii. Decision to place Indians on reservations
iv. Agreements at Medicine Creek lodge and Fort Laramie
b. George Armstrong Custer and the Battle of the Little Bighorn
c. Continued Indian Resistance
i. Chief Joseph
ii. Wounded Knee
iii. Slaughter of the buffalo
d. Reform of Indian Policy
i. Helen Hunt Jackson: A Century of Dishonor
ii. The Dawes Severalty Act
1. Goal and effect
VIII. Cowboys in the West
a. Homestead Act of 1862
b. Western Farms, large and small
IX. End of the Frontier
a. Frontier line no longer existed after 1890
b. Frederick Jackson Turner: "The Significance of the Frontier in American History."
BIG BUSINESS AND ORGANIZED LABOR
I. Economic effects of the Civil War
a. Per-capita output decreased in 1860’s
a. Growth of railroads
b. Transcontinental Railroads
i. Federal land grants and subsidies
ii. Pacific Railway Bill (1862) authorized transcontinental line on north-central route.
1. Union Pacific Railroad
2. Central Pacific Railroad
iii. Chinese labor
iv. First railroad completed at Promontory Point, Utah
v. Other transcontinental railroads
c. Financing the Railroads
i. Western Railroad Finances
1. The Crédit Mobilier Company
2. Role of the Federal government
d. Eastern Railroad finances
i. Jay Gould
ii. Cornelius Vanderbilt
III. Manufacturing and Inventions
a. Growth of new industries/transformation of old industries
i. Alexander Graham Bell – telephone
ii. Thomas A. Edison – Electric light
IV. Entrepreneurs (Captains of Industry, or "Robber Barons")
a. John D. Rockefeller – Standard Oil Company
b. Andrew Carnegie – Carnegie Steel
i. "The Gospel of Wealth"
c. J. Pierpont Morgan
i. Investment banking
d. Sears and Roebuck – Mail order catalog business
V. Workers in an Industrialized America
a. Distribution of wealth
i. Continued inequality
ii. Upward social mobility
b. Working conditions
i. Wages earned and hours worked
ii. Poor safety and health conditions in factories
c. Change from personal working conditions to impersonal relationships.
VI. Early worker protest
a. The Molly Macguires.
b. The Great Railroad Strike of 1877
i. Reduction of wages was immediate cause.
ii. Strike spread across country. Ultimately failed.
VII. Rise of Unions
a. The National Labor Union
i. Limitations and achievements
VIII. The Knights of Labor
a. Founded by Uriah S. Stephens
b. Saw greatest success under Terrence V. Powderly
i. Successful strikes against Union Pacific and Jay Gould’s railroads
ii. Growth in membership
c. Decline of Knights of Labor
i. Another strike against Jay Gould failed.
ii. The Haymarket Affair
1. Riot in Haymarket square
2. Trial and sentencing of anarchists
IX. The American Federation of Labor
a. Samuel Gompers
i. Concern for concrete economic gains
ii. Interested in protecting skilled workers only; not factory workers.
X. Two Strikes that hurt the Union movement
a. Homestead Steel Strike of 1892
i. Reasons for the strike
ii. Battle between strikers and Pinkerton detectives
iii. Strike failed; union dead at Homestead
b. Pullman Strike of 1894
i. Workers forced to live in town of Pullman
ii. Workers turned to Eugene V. Debs and the American Railway Union
iii. Strikes tied up most Midwestern railroads
iv. Mail cars attached to Pullman cars.
v. Debs jailed; union called off strike
XI. Socialism and the Unions
a. Eugene Debs and the Social Democrat Party
b. Socialist Party of America
i. Debs Presidential Candidate in 1904, 1912.
XII. Industrial Workers of the WorldWilliam D. "Big Bill" Haywood
i. Include all workers, skilled and unskilled
ii. Replace the state with one big union
b. Decline of the IWW
i. Disputes within the Group
THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN AMERICA
I. American Cities in the late 19th Century
i. Transportation and industry as factors of growth
ii. Elevators allowed cities to grow vertically
iii. Streetcars and bridges allowed cities to grow horizontally
b. City Politics
II. Immigration to America
a. Immigrants a major force in growth of cities
i. Numbers of immigrants
ii. Ethnic neighborhoods
iii. Reasons for coming to America.
b. The new Immigration
i. After 1890, most immigrants from southern and eastern Europe.
ii. Differences in culture, language, religion
c. Ellis Island
d. Immigrant life
i. Working conditions
ii. Living conditions
e. The nativist response
i. New immigrants viewed as a threat.
ii. The American Protective Association
iii. Immigration restriction
1. Early laws excluded "undesireables"
2. Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
III. Growth of Educational Opportunities
a. Public education
i. Increases in spending for schools.
ii. Secondary schools.
b. Vocational Training
i. Booker T. Washington and Calvin M. Woodward
ii. Vocational training in high schools.
iii. Agricultural and Mechanical colleges.
c. Higher Education
i. Increases in college attendance
ii. Women in higher education
iii. Graduate schools
IV. Popular Culture
a. Wild West Shows
c. Outdoor Recreation
d. Spectator Sports
V. Theories of Social Change
a. Charles Darwin: Origin of Species
b. Herbert Spencer: Social Darwinism
i. William Graham Sumner
c. Reform Darwinism
i. Challenge to Social Darwinism
ii. Lester Frank Ward: Dynamic Sociology
VI. Realism in Philosophy
a. William James and Pragmatism
i. Meaning and value of ideas in their practical consequences.
b. John Dewey and "instrumentalism"
i. Ideas as instruments
ii. Progressive education
VII. Realism in Literature
a. Local color
i. Mark Twain
b. Literary realism
i. William Dean Howells
ii. Henry James
c. Literary Naturalism
i. Introduction of scientific determinism into Literature
1. Stephen Crane
2. Jack London
3. Theodore Dreiser
VIII. Social Criticism in the late 19th Century
a. Henry George: Progress and Poverty
b. Henry Demarest Lloyd: Wealth against Commonwealth
c. Thorstein Veblen: The Theory of the Leisure Class
d. Edward Bellamy: Looking Backward
IX. The Social gospel
a. Community service and care for the unfortunate
b. Religious reformers
i. Social conscience of the middle class.
X. Settlement House Movement
a. Women in the work force
b. Susan B. Anthony
c. Split in the movement
i. National Woman Suffrage Association promoted feminist causes
ii. American Woman Suffrage Association promoted only women’s suffrage
XI. The Supreme Court and laissez-faire
a. Regulation of business by states.
b. "Due Process" clause of Fourteenth Amendment applied to Corporations
i. "Person" read to include corporations
c. "Liberty of Contract" cases
GILDED AGE POLITICS AND THE AGRARIAN REVOLT
I. Gilded Age Politics
a. Mediocre Political leaders
b. Few real differences between political parties
c. Factors shaping Gilded Age Politics
i. Americans remembered Civil War; hesitant to take clear-cut stands.
ii. Parties evenly divided
iii. No "strong" chief executive in Gilded Age.
d. Alliance between politics and business
e. Voter turnout extremely high
II. Administration of Rutherford B. Hayes
a. Civil Service Reform
i. Republican party split between Stalwarts and Half-breeds
ii. Hayes policy toward Civil Service reform
b. Limiting role of government
III. Administration of James A. Garfield and Chester A. Arthur
a. Garfield assassinated.
b. Arthur as President
i. Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883) – required competitive examination for civil service jobs
c. Attempts to lower tariff
IV. The First Administration of Grover Cleveland
a. Election of 1884
1. James G. Blaine and the "Mulligan letters"
2. Rise of the Mugwumps
i. Grover Cleveland
ii. Scandal over illegitimate child
c. Last minute blunders by Blaine give election to Cleveland
i. Belshazzer’s Feast
d. Cleveland as President
i. Civil Service Reform
1. Promised support of Pendleton Act
2. But removed many Republican officeholders.
ii. The Public Treasury
1. 81 million acres of public land restored to federal government.
2. Opposition to pension raids on treasury.
iii. Railroad regulation
1. Interstate Commerce Commission – required uniform railroad rates.
V. Administration of Benjamin Harrelson
a. Election – Cleveland won popular vote but lost election in electoral college
b. Harrison as President
i. Many federal officeholders removed on partisan grounds
ii. Pensions for Union veterans doubled.
iii. Sherman Anti-Trust Act
iv. Sherman Silver Purchase Act
v. McKinley Tariff of 1890
VI. Problems of Farmers
a. Diversity of farm interests
b. Decline in commodity prices
i. Domestic overproduction
ii. International competition
c. Railroads and middlemen
i. High railroad rates – farmers had little bargaining power.
d. High Tariffs
i. Crop liens and land mortgages
ii. Forced to grow cash crops
f. Inadequate currency
i. Per capita currency in circulation decreased 10 per cent from 1865-1890.
ii. The "Crime of ‘73" – Congress halted coinage of silver
VII. The Grange
a. "Patrons of Husbandry
b. "Grainger Laws"
i. Regulation of Railroad and Warehouse rates
ii. Supreme Court upheld warehouse regulation in Munn vs. Illinois.
VIII. The Farmers’ Alliance
a. Farm Politics
i. The subtreasury plan
ii. In West, third party successes
iii. In South, influenced Democratic party
b. Leaders of Farm movement
i. Mary Elizabeth Lease
ii. "Sockless Jerry" Simpson
iii. Tom Watson
IX. The Populist Party
a. Omaha Platform
i. Finance, transportation, land
b. Election of 1892
i. James B. Weaver, Populist Candidate – received one million popular votes; carried four states.
X. The Depression of 1893
a. Cleveland’s second administration
b. Worker unrest
c. 1894 strike involved 750, 000 workers
d. Coxey’s Army marched on Washington
e. Populists elected thirteen to Congress in midterm elections of 1894.
f. Depression forced attention on currency issue
i. Repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act
ii. Bonds issued to build gold reserve
iii. American Bimetallic League
XI. Election of 1896
a. Republicans – William McKinley on Gold Standard platform
b. Democrats – pro-silver William Jennings Bryan after "cross of gold" speech.
c. Populists also nominated Bryan rather than split silver vote.
d. Victory for McKinley
i. Bryan carried most of West and South
ii. Bryan unable to attract votes of Midwestern farmers and eastern workers.
XII. The New Era
a. Triumph of metropolitan and industrial America over rural and agrarian America.
b. New gold discoveries ended depression
c. Spanish American War ended controversy over tariffs and currency.
I. Toward New Imperialism
a. Reasons for American expansion
ii. Naval power
1. Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Influence of Sea Power upon History
iii. Racial thought
1. Social Darwinism
2. Josiah Strong: Our Country
b. Seward and the Purchase of Alaska
c. Expansion in the Pacific
i. Samoa – Treaty of 1878
1. Boom in sugar production
2. American influence in economy and government
3. Americans rebel against Queen Liliuokalani; proclaim Republic of Hawaii
d. Diplomatic Incidents, 1880’s and 1890’s
i. Agreements with Canada end pelagic sealing
ii. Venezuelan-British Guiana boundary dispute
1. Cleveland invokes Monroe Doctrine
2. England agreed to arbitration
II. The Spanish-American War
a. Cuban Rebellion
b. Yellow Journalism
c. Pressures for War
i. McKinley elected on platform endorsing Cuban independence
ii. Explosion of Maine
iii. Influence of Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst
iv. War declared
1. George Dewey – battle of Manila bay
2. Theodore Roosevelt and "rough riders"
d. End of War
i. Spain gave up Cuba
ii. U.S. acquires Puerto Rico and Guam
III. Organizing New Acquisitions
i. Made unorganized territory
ii. Jones Act set up legislature for Philippines, affirmed U.S. intention to grant Independence.
b. Puerto Rico
i. Foraker Act set up civil Government
ii. Jones Act granted U.S. Citizenship
c. "Insular Cases" – Constitution does not follow the flag
i. Platt Amendment restricted Cuban independence
a. Open Door Policy (1899)
b. Boxer Rebellion (1900)
V. Roosevelt’s "big stick" diplomacy
a. Becomes President when McKinley assassinated.
b. Panama Canal
i. Early treaties hindered canal efforts.
ii. Problems with Colombia
iii. Rebellion in Panama – U.S. assisted.
iv. America built canal – Colombia resented
c. Roosevelt Corollary --If intervention necessary, U.S. would intervene.
i. Economic Crisis in Dominican Republic invited foreign intervention.
d. Russo-Japanese War
i. TR sponsored peace settlement
ii. Treaty of Portsmouth
e. "Great White Fleet" shows America’s strength.
I. Features of Progressivism
a. Greater democracy
i. Direct primaries
ii. Initiative, Referendum, recall
iii. Popular election of Senators
b. "Gospel of Efficiency"
i. Frederick Taylor and The Principles of Scientific Management
c. Corporate regulation
d. Social Justice
i. Labor laws – Child labor
e. Public service function of government
II. Theodore Roosevelt as Progressive:
i. Thought effective regulation better than attempts to restore competition
ii. Used Courts to bust trusts
1. Northern Securities Trust dissolved by Supreme Court
b. Anthracite coal strike of 1902
i. Roosevelt threatened to take over mines, forced owners to arbitrate.
c. Antitrust and regulatory legislation of 1903
i. Department of Commerce and Labor created.
ii. Elkins Act made railroad rebates illegal.
III. Roosevelt’s Second Term – elected in 1904
a. Hepburn Act of 1906: Gave Interstate Commerce Commission power to set maximum rates.
b. Movement to regulate food processors and makers of drug and patent medicines.
i. The Jungle
ii. Meat Inspection Act of 1906
iii. Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906
c. Conservation – withdrew 170 acres of timberlands
d. Election of 1908 – TR handpicked William Howard Taft to succeed.
i. Taft defeated William Jennings Bryan
IV. Taft’s Progressivism
a. Dollar Diplomacy in China and Latin America
b. Wanted lower tariff; but Congress voted higher tariff; Taft backed down, fearing split.
c. TR broke with Taft
i. Taft Administration sued US Steel against TR’s wishes.
ii. Election of 1912, Roosevelt nominated for President by Progressive (Bull moose) Party.
iii. Roosevelt shot; Taft had no chance of re-election. Woodrow Wilson elected.
V. Woodrow Wilson
a. Democrats back in national power
b. Southerners back in national affairs.
VI. Wilson as a Progressive
a. Underwood-Simmons Tariff lowered average duties.
b. Income tax (16th Amendment) passed to replace lost revenue.
c. Glass-Owen Federal Reserve Act
i. Allowed reserves to be pooled
ii. Made currency and bank credit more elastic
d. Progressivism for Whites only
i. Wilson’s racial attitudes
ii. Spread of Jim Crow in Wilson’s government
e. Resurgence of progressivism
i. Farm reforms (credit and education)
ii. Federal Highways Act (1916) subsidized state highway departments.
iii. Labor reform
1. Adamson Act – eight-hour work day for railroad employees.
f. Progressivism began movement for positive government.
VII. Paradoxes of Progressivism
a. Disenfranchisement of blacks
b. Decisions made by faceless policymakers
c. Decline in voter participaton
AMERICA AND THE GREAT WAR
I. Wilson’s foreign policy was idealistic – "missionary diplomacy"
Secretary of State: William Jennings Bryan
i. America called to advance democracy and moral progress.
i. Wilson intervened in government coup led by Gen. Victoriano Huerta
c. Caribbean: American marines put down disorders.
II. Outbreak of War
a. Wilson urged Americans to be neutral
i. Many immigrants supported Central Powers (Germany)
1. German Americans
2. Irish Americans opposed to anything British
b. Old line Americans supported Allies
c. Propaganda used by both sides.
d. German unrestricted submarine warfare
i. Lusitania sunk; America protested with diplomatic notes
ii. Bryan resigned rather than risk war
iii. Arabic pledge (Sussex pledge)
e. Election of 1916
i. Wilson defeated Charles Evans Hughes ("He kept us out of the war.")
f. Last efforts at Peace
i. Germany announces resumption of unrestricted Submarine Warfare
i. Wilson broke diplomatic relations with Germany
ii. The Zimmerman Telegram
III. America’s Entry into the War
a. Liberty Loan Act helped finance British and French War efforts
b. Selective Service Act
c. U.S. army sent to France under Gen. John J. Pershing
IV. The Home Front during the War
a. Regulation of industry and the economy
i. Lever Food and Fuel Control Act
ii. War industries board
1. directed by Bernard Baruch.
b. New labor force
i. African Americans
1. The "Great Migration"
2. Northern race riots
c. Mobilizing public opinion – Committee on Public Information
d. Civil Liberties
i. Public opinion aroused to promote war; turned to "Americanism" and witch hunting.
ii. Espionage and Sedition Acts
1. Schenk vs. United States – "clear and present danger" rule.
V. America in the War
a. Two million men in France in November, 1918
b. Wilson’s Plan for Peace: The Fourteen Points:
i. Open diplomacy
ii. Freedom of Seas
iii. Removal of Trade Barriers
iv. League of Nations
c. Allies accepted Fourteen Points, but demanded war reparations
d. Armistice signed November 11, 1918.
VI. Wilson’s fight for peace
a. Did not invite prominent Republicans to attend peace conference at Versailles.
b. Agreed to harsh reparation terms to preserve League of Nations
i. France wanted to cripple Germany
ii. Germany forced to accept responsibility for war and it’s costs.
c. The League of Nations
i. Article X pledged members to consult on military and economic sanctions against aggressors.
VII. The Fight for Ratification
a. Opposition in Senate
i. The irreconcilables
ii. The reservationists
b. Henry Cabot Lodge (hated Wilson) attacked treaty
c. Wilson took his case to the people
i. Suffered stroke – became more stubborn, refused to compromise
d. Senate refused to ratify treaty.
VIII. From War to Peace
a. Spanish Flu
b. Economic transition
i. Labor unrest – Boston police strike
c. Red Scare
i. Fear of social revolution as in Russia
ii. Most violence work of lunatic fringe; but many Americans saw it all as "Bolshevism."
iii. A. Mitchell Palmer, Attorney General, active in promoting red scare.
1. Palmer raids
THE MODERN TEMPER
I. Defensive mood of the 1920’s
i. Sacco and Vanzetti – arrested for robbery and murder; main crime was political beliefs and foreign origin.
b. Immigration restriction
i. Based on racist pseudo-scientific studies
ii. Immigration law favored immigration from Northern and Western Europe
c. The new Ku Klux Klan
i. Unlike predecessor, devoted to "100% Americanism."
i. The Fundamentals
ii. Based on unerring reliance of Biblical teaching.
iii. William Jennings Bryan and other leaders opposed teaching of evolution.
iv. Scopes Monkey trial – Dayton, Tennesee
1. Bryan, Clarence Darrow, and the trial
i. Eighteenth Amendment ratified – 1919
ii. Problems of enforcement
1. Illegal stills and rum-running
iii. Organized Crime
1. Prohibition created new source of income
2. Al Cpone
f. Defensive temper of the 1920’s partly a reaction to social and intellectual revolution.
II. The New Morality – revolution in manners and morals
a. F. Scott Fitzgerald – chronicled revolution
b. Growing awareness of Freud’s theories prompted discussion of sex
c. Sex in movies, books, and magazines
d. New views of marriage
i. Roles within the family change
ii. Rise in divorce rate
III. The women’s movement
a. Carrie Chapman Catt and the National Suffrage Association
b. Nineteenth Amendment ratified in 1920 – Wilson endorsed.
c. Working Women
i. Increases in number of voting women
ii. Most still in traditional occupations
IV. The "New Negro"
a. Nearly one million blacks moved north in the Great Migration
b. Harlem Renaissance
i. Rediscovery of black folk culture
ii. Writers of the Harlem Renaissance
c. Negro nationalism
i. Promoted black cultural expression and black exclusiveness.
ii. Leading spokesman – Marcus Garvey
d. The NAACP
i. Organized in 1910
ii. Main strategy – legal action
e. Black political strength
i. Oscar Depriest first Negro Congressman from North.
ii. Successful fight against confirmation of John J. Parker to Supreme Court.
V. Science and Social Thought
a. Albert Einstein’s work showed everything is relative
b. Heisenberg’s Uncertainty principle indicated human knowledge of universe is limited.
VI. Relativity and Anthropology
a. "Culture" had no absolutes – one cannot judge another culture.
b. Ruth Benedict, Margaret Mead (Coming of Age in Samoa) showed diversity of cultures.
VII. Modernist Movement in Art and Literature
a. Modernism in Literature: Ezra Pound, T.S. Eliot, Gertrude Stein, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway
b. Hemingway, etc. disillusioned by World War I called the "lost generation."
c. The Southern Renaissance
i. The "Fugitives" Thomas Wolfe, William Faulkner
REPUBLICAN RESURGENCE AND DECLINE
I. Transformation of Progressivism
a. Disillusionment over World War I.
b. Organized labor unhappy over strikes of 1919-1920
c. Farmers unhappy with wartime price controls.
d. Intellectuals disillusioned by prohibition and anti-evolution movements.
e. Many progressivist movements reached.
II. Administration of Warren G. Harding
a. Appointments included good and bad choices – similar to U.S. Grant
b. Policies of Andrew Mellon
i. Tax reductions for rich
ii. Higher tariff
c. Conservatives headed major regulatory industries
i. Scandals of "Ohio Gang"
ii. Teapot Dome Scandal
1. Albert Fall, Interior Secretary allowed private companies to exploit government-owned oil deposits
III. Calvin Coolidge
a. Made famous after Boston Police Strike
b. Became President at Harding’s Death; re-elected in 1924.
IV. Republican Prosperity in the 1920’s
a. Fueled by growth of consumer goods industries: Motion pictures and radio broadcasting important.
b. Advances in transportation included Airplane industry and automobiles.
c. Economy stable
i. Herbert Hoover, (Secretary of Commerce) wrote American Individualism
d. Farm policies
i. McNary-Haugen bill planned to dump surplus crops on world market to raise prices at home – vetoed by Coolidge
V. Herbert Hoover as President
a. Hawley-Smoot Tariff raised duties to all-time high.
b. Economy out of control
i. Florida real estate boom.
ii. Increased speculation in stock market; Great Bull Market peaked Sept. 3, 1929.
VI. Hoover in the Depression
a. Stock Market’s worst day: October 29, 1929
b. Hoover expressed hope, though wages fell and unemployment rose.
c. Reasons for the crash
i. Economic factors
ii. Government policies
iii. Gold standard
d. Hoover’s Attempts at recovery
i. Asked businessmen to let profits suffer before purchasing power.
ii. Maintained policy of "volunteerism."
e. Republicans lost control of both house of Congress, mid-term elections of 1930.
f. More attempts at recovery
i. Reconstruction Finance Corporation – keep financial institutions open.
ii. Glass-Steagall Act – increased loan opportunities
iii. Federal Home Loan Act – provided financing for home mortgages
iv. Emergency Relief and Construction Act – provided funds for public works programs
VII. Protests against Hoover’s Policies
a. Farmers blocked delivery of produce
b. Communists became active, but no significant increase in party membership.
i. Congress voted bonus for veterans payable in 1945
ii. Bonus Expeditionary Force marched on Washington, demanded immediate payment of bonus.
iii. Congress rejected demands; many veterans stayed in Washington in makeshift camp.
iv. Army used to evict veterans – led my Douglas MacArthur.
NEW DEAL AMERICA
I. From Hoover to Roosevelt
a. FDR promised "New Deal for American people" when nominated
b. Defeated Hoover in 1932 election
c. Four months between election and FDR’s inauguration: "Interregnum of Despair."
i. Depression’s panic spread
d. Inauguration: Said would ask for "wartime" measures to fight depression.
i. "We have nothing to fear but fear itself."
II. The Hundred Days
a. Four-day bank holiday immediately after inauguration
i. "Fireside chats" assured banks’ safety
b. End of Prohibition
c. Problem of Debt
i. Farm Credit Administration – Farm Credit Act
ii. Home Owners Loan Corporation
d. Banking and investment reforms
i. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
ii. Federal Securities Act
e. Relief Measures
i. Civilian Conservation Corps – put young single men to work.
ii. Civil Works Administration
f. Agricultural recovery through controlled production
i. Agricultural Adjustment Act – paid farmers to plow under every fourth acre.
ii. Commodity Credit Corporation
iii. The Dust Bowl and "Okies"
g. Industrial recovery – the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
i. Public Works Administration
h. Tennessee Valley Authority
i. Power plants, dams at Muscle Shoals, Alabama
1. Rural electrification
III. Opposition to the New Deal
a. Thunder on the left
i. Huey Long
ii. Frances Townsend
iii. Father Charles Coughlin
b. Supreme Court struck down NIRA in Schecter Poultry vs. United States – New Deal endangered.
IV. The Second Hundred Days
a. National Labor Relations Act
b. Social Security Act
c. Works Progress Administration
d. Roosevelt re-elected by landslide in 1936; defeated Alf Landon.
V. FDR and Supreme Court
a. Court decisions endangered New Deal
b. Court Packing plan –increase justices to 15; require retirement
c. Change in vote on Court made Court packing unnecessary.
VI. Legacy of New Deal
a. Increased governmental programs
b. Greatly increased federal debt
c. Depression ended by outbreak of World War II.
ISOLATIONISM TO WORLD WAR II
I. Americans seemed to favor isolationism
a. Washington’s advice in farewell address
b. Did not join League of Nations
II. War Debts and Reparations
a. Allies objected to payment of wartime debts to U.S.
b. Johnson Debt Default Act of 1934
a. Washington Armaments Conference (1921)
i. Five Power Naval Treaty – tonnage limites, moratorium on capital ship building.
b. Four Power treaty – U.S. France, Britain, Japan, each would respect other’s Pacific possessions.
c. Nine-Power Treaty—supported Open Door policy and territorial integrity of China.
d. Kellogg-Briand Treaty attempted to outlaw war.
IV. The "Good Neighbor" Policy
a. Peace and non-intervention in Latin America
V. American Neutrality after Outbreak of War in Europe
a. Neutrality Act of 1935 – forbade sale of arms and munitions to belligerents.
b. Aid to Britain – U.S. gave 50 "overage" destroyers to Britain for leases on naval and air bases.
c. First peacetime conscription of troops.
d. 1940 Election – Roosevelt defeated Wendell Wilkie
e. Lend-Lease Act
VI. Storm in the Pacific
a. Japanese aggression in Indochina; Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy
b. U.S. restricted oil exports to Japan
c. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor – December 7, 1941. U.S. declared war
VII. Early Battles
a. Setbacks in Pacific – Philippines surrendered.
b. Battle of Coral Sea – stopped Japanese advance on Australia
c. Battle of Midway – turning point in Pacific war
i. U.S. broke Japanese code
VIII. Mobilization at Home
a. War Powers Acts
b. War Production Board
c. Taxes paid 45 % of wartime expenditures
IX. Social Effects of War
i. 6,000,000 entered work force. "Rosie the Riveter." Changed attitudes about sex roles.
i. Served in armed forces usually in segregated units
ii. Revived migration from South to work in war industries
c. Native Americans
i. Supported war – participated more than any ethnic group.
d. Japanese Americans
i. Sent to War Relocation Camps – loyalty doubted
ii. No similar program for German Americans
X. War In Europe
a. Decision to defeat Germany first
b. Declaration of the United Nations
i. Atlantic Charter pledged not to seek separate peace.
c. Teheran Conference – Planned D-Day invasion; Russia promised to enter war against Japan
d. D-Day – Invasion of Europe
XI. Election of 1944 – Roosevelt defeated Thomas E. Dewey
XII. Yalta Conference
a. Agreed to form United Nations
b. Division of Germany and Berlin
XIII. Germany collapsed, unconditional surrender
XIV. Collapse of Japan
a. Potsdam Declaration – threatened "dire destruction" if Japan did not surrender.
b. A-Bomb dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
c. Japanese surrender to MacArthur aboard USS Missouri
THE FAIR DEAL AND CONTAINMENT
I. Demobilization under Harry Truman
a. Raid reduction of armed forces
b. Baby-boom generation
c. Demobilization did not bring depression – pent up demand for consumer goods.
d. Servicemen’s Readjustment Act
II. Truman’s Early Domestic Policies
a. Atomic Energy Commission – Atomic energy solely under government control.
b. Employment Act of 1946 – dropped Democratic Party commitment to full employment
c. Discontent led to Republican majorities in both houses in 1946 elections.
d. Record of Republican Congress
i. Taft-Hartley Act: restrictions on labor; passed over Truman’s veto.
ii. Tax reduction over Truman’s veto
iii. National Security Act – created National Security Council and Central Intelligence Agency
III. The Cold War
a. Differences with Soviets over control of Post-war Europe
i. Truman Doctrine: support fee people who are resisting attempted subjugation.
c. The Marshall Plan: Economic aid to Europe after war.
d. Creation of East and West Germany
e. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
IV. Domestic Policies
a. Democratic Party divided: Conservatives upset at Truman’s Civil Rights stand.
b. 1948 Election: Truman vs. Dewey
i. Strom Thurmond ran on States Rights (Dixiecrat) party.
V. The Korean War
a. North Korean forces invaded South Korea
b. American military forces committed under United Nations auspices.
c. Gen. Douglas MacArthur commanded U.N. forces
i. Never a formal declaration of war.
d. Arthur dismissed for criticizing Truman
VI. Another Red Scare
a. Alger Hiss: accuse of passing secret documents – convicted of perjury
b. Rosenbergs: executed for giving Atomic Bomb secrets to Soviets.
c. Joseph McCarthy’s Witch Hunt
i. Said State Department infiltrated with Communists
ii. Paranoid accusations; failed when accused Army of being "soft" on Communism
d. McCarran Internal Security Act: passed over Truman’s veto; attempt to control Communist activities.
SOCIETY AND CULTURE IN THE 1950’S
I. Postwar Prosperity
a. GNP doubled: 1945 – 1960.
i. Military spending
iii. Consumer Spending
iv. Baby Boom
b. Consumer Culture
ii. Credit and advertising
c. Youth Culture
ii. Rock ‘n’ Roll
d. Suburban Migration
i. Rise of "sunbelt"
ii. Reasons for suburban growth
1. Levittown and mass production
2. Low-cost loans
3. Automobiles and highways
4. Racial considerations
iii. The second great black migration
II. A confirming culture
a. Growth of the middle class
b. Growth of big business
c. Women’s Place
i. Conformity emphasized
ii. Cult of domesticity
d. Religious revival
i. Americans as joiners
ii. Increase in church membership
2. marketing of religion
3. Message of the popular religion
III. Cracks in the Picture Window
a. Social Criticsim
i. Galbraith: The Affluent Society
ii. Mills: The White Collar Society
b. Alienation on the Stage
i. Miller: Death of a Salesman
c. The Novel
i. Salinger: The Catcher in the Rye
i. Jackson Pollock
ii. Edward Hopper
e. The Beats
i. Allen Ginsberg
THE EISENHOWER YEARS
I. Election of 1952
a. Truman decided not to run again.
b. Eisenhower defeated Adlai Stevenson
II. Eisenhower as President
a. Some New Deal Programs Extended
i. Social Security
b. Public Works
i. St. Lawrence Seaway
ii. Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956
III. End of McCarthyism
a. Attack on the U.S. Army
b. Televised hearings lead to McCarthy’s downfall
c. Eisenhower concerned about internal security
i. Allowed firing of "security risk" government workers.
ii. Oppenheimer’s Security clearance removed.
IV. Foreign Policy
a. John Foster Dulles as policy of "Brinkmanship"
i. "Massive Retaliation
V. Second Term
a. Re-elected, 1956; defeated Stephenson again.
VI. Domestic Affairs
a. Beginning of Space Race
i. Russia launched Sputnik I (October, 1957)
ii. Americans noted "missile gap"
1. Enlarged defense spending
2. NASA created
3. More emphasis on education – National Defense Education Act
b. Eisenhower faced three successive Congresses dominated by the oppositon party.
VII. Civil Rights in the 1950’s
a. Brown vs. Board of Education
i. "Separate but equal" has no place.
b. Montgomery Bus boycott
i. Rosa Parks arrested
ii. Southern Christian Leadership Conference formed
c. Little Rock
i. Gov. Orval Faubus prevented black students from registering for school.
ii. Eisenhower ordered military protection for students.
iii. Faubus closed high schools in Little Rock
iv. By 160, massive resistance confined to Deep South
THE TURBULENT SIXTIES
I. Election of 1960
A. Differences between Kennedy and Nixon
B. Televised debates – helped Kennedy. Catholicism not a problem.
II. Kennedy as President:
A. Warren Court on Civil Liberties
B. Civil Rights
3. Freedom Riders
4. Birmingham Demonstration
a. King’s "Letter from Birmingham Jail"
5. March on Washington
a. "I Have a Dream" Speech
C. Foreign Affairs
1. Bay of Pigs Fiasco
2. Berlin Wall
3. Cuban Missile Crisis – resolution
a. Kennedy reluctant to escalate involvement
b. Ngo Dinh Diem – Problems
III. Johnson Administration
A. Kennedy Assassination – "Camelot" image – soon dissipated.
B. The Great Society
2. War on Poverty
C. Election of 1964
1. Barry Goldwater – weaknesses
2. Johnson landslide victory
D. Landmark Legislation
1. Medicare, Medicaid
2. Federal aid to education
3. Appalachian redevelopment
4. Housing and urban development
5. Immigration Act
IV. From Civil Rights to Black Power
A. Conditions of urban blacks – riots, 1965, 1966
B. Philosophy of Black Power movement
1. Malcolm X and other leaders
C. Effects of Black Power on Civil Rights Movement
1. Pride in Racial heritage
2. King, others forced to pay attention to urban problems.
A. Lost by French at Dienbienphu
B. Attempts at Containment
C. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1. Operation Rolling Thunder
2. Limited War – no clear American victory possible.
3. Increased commitment of troops
4. Erosion of support at home.
D. The Turning Point
1. Tet Offensive
2. Further erosion of support
3. Johnson announces will not seek second term
VI. Sixties Crescendo
A. Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
B. Assassination of Robert Kennedy
C. Election of 1968
1. Democrats – Hubert Humphrey
a. Party in disarray – Chicago convention
b. V.P. Candidate – Edmund Muskie
2. Republicans – Richard Nixon
a. Nominated at quiet convention in Miami
b. Represented stability and order
c. V.P. Candidate – Spiro Agnew ("Who?")
3. Independent – George Wallace
a. Hoped to throw election into House of Representatives.
b. V.P. Candidate – Curtis Lemay
i. Suggested "nuking" N. Vietnam.
4. Narrow Victory for Nixon – Wallace carried several Southern States.
5. Election seemed to indicate "return to normalcy" – untrue.
REBELLION AND REACTION: THE 1960'S AND 1970'S
I. Attacks on Traditional Institutions
a. Maturing baby boom generation
b. New Left
i. Students for a Democratic Society
ii. Role of Vietnam in Radicalizing Youth
iii. Increased college protests
iv. The 1868 Democratic Convention
v. Breakup of the New Left
c. The Counter-Culture
i. Origins and philosophy
ii. Communal living
iii. Rock music concerts
iv. Downfall of counterculture
i. Betty Friedan –The Feminine Mystique
iii. Changes in traditional sex roles
i. Hispanics – United Farm Workers
ii. Native Americans – AIM
II. Nixon and Viet Nam
a. Gradual Withdrawal
i. American demands at Paris Peace talks.
ii. Expanded Air war
b. Divisions at home
i. Decline in military morale
ii. My Lai massacre
iii. Cambodian "incursion"
iv. Kent State
v. Pentagon Papers publication
vi. Shift in American negotiating position
1. Christmas bombing
2. Peace treaty signed
3. Effects of American withdrawal
4. Effects of American withdrawal
III. Nixon and Middle America
a. Civil Rights
i. Supreme Court decisions
ii. Economic difficulties
iii. Oil embargo
iv. Stagflation – efforts to cure.
b. Environmental Protection
i. Creation of EPA
IV. Nixon Triumphant:
a. Visit to China – official recognition
b. Détente – visit to Soviet Union – SALT agreement.
i. Sale of American wheat to Soviets.
c. 1972 Election – Nixon landslide – defeats McGovern.
a. "Dirty Tricks
b. Senate Hearings
c. House Committee – Articles of Impeachment
d. Nixon resigns
e. Effects of Watergate
i. Cynicism over Ford’s pardoning of Nixon
ii. Legislative responses to Watergate – Freedom of Information Act; War Powers Act.
VI. Gerald Ford
a. Conservative philosophy
b. Defeated by Carter in low voter turnout.
VII. Carter Years
a. Policy stalemate
b. Panama Canal Treaty
c. Camp David Affairs
d. Economic troubles
e. Iran Hostage Crisis -- Carter unable to solve.
RONALD REAGAN AND GEORGE H.W.BUSH
I. The Reagan Revolution
a. Reagan’s background.
b. Conservative transformation
c. Reagan’s attraction
i. Record as California Governor.
d. Factors favoring Reagan
i. Demographics – population aging, move to Sunbelt.
ii. Rise of new fundamentalism
e. 1980 election – results; voter apathy.
II. Reagan’s First Term
i. Supply-side economics – background.
ii. Early economic program
iii. Assassination attempt – increased Reagan’s popularity.
iv. Economic program passed by Congress:
1. Economic Recovery Tax Act
2. Deficit increased.
b. Domestic Policy
i. Budget Cuts
1. Social Programs cut
2. Stock, Bond prices sag
3. Tax increased.
ii. New Priorities
1. Deregulation of public lands
2. "Sleaze factor" and "Teflon Presidency"
3. Reagan position on labor, women, and civil rights
c. Foreign Policy
i. Defense buildup
ii. Problems in El Salvador, Nicaragua
iii. The Middle East
1. American position
2. Tragedy in Lebanon
iv. Tragedy in Lebanon
III. Reagan’s Second Term
a. Election of 1984
i. Candidates – results
b. Domestic Challenges
c. Tax Reform
d. Arms control
i. Geneva Summit
ii. Reykjavik Meeting
e. The Iran-Contra affair
ii. Tower Commission Report
f. Central America
i. El Salvador, Panama
g. LBO’s and S & L’s.
i. Leveraged Buyouts
ii. The Savings and Loan Crisis
h. Debt and the Stock Market Crash
i. The Poor, Homeless, and AIDS Victims
j. The INF Treaty
i. Lessened tensions with Soviets
k. The Reagan legacy
l. 1988 election
i. Candidates, campaign, results.
IV. The Bush Years
a. Tone of Bush Administration
b. National Debt
i. Savings and Loan Crisis bailout
ii. The Federal Budget
c. The Drug Problem
d. End of the Cold War
i. Events in the Soviet Union
ii. Other Democratic movements
i. Manuel Noriega
ii. Invasion of Panama – capture of Noriega
f. Gulf War
ii. Action by U.N. and United States
iii. Operation Desert Shield
iv. Operation Desert Storm
v. Aftermath of War
g. The Computer Revolution