The Restoration Colonies: The Carolinas, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania

    The English Civil War, the Protectorate, and Restoration:  Charles I had dissolved Parliament in 1629 and attempted to rule as an absolute monarch; however he incited a war with Scotland when he attempted to impose the Anglican Book of Common Prayer on the Presbyterian Scots. He summoned Parliament to raise money to fight the war; but Parliament was comprised primarily of Puritans who sympathized with the Scots. In 1642, Parliament and Charles raised separate armies resulting in the English Civil War.  Charles' forces were defeated, and he was arrested. Charles was convicted of treason and beheaded on January 30, 1649.  The House of Lords was abolished, and England proclaimed a Commonwealth, under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell, a leading Puritan general during the war, who proclaimed himself "Lord Protector." Cromwell's attempts to rule England as a theocracy never fully succeeded.  When he died in September, 1658, the Commonwealth collapsed, and the army invited Charles II to return from exile and resume the throne. With the restoration of the monarchy, the Church of England was restored to its former position of authority and dissenting groups, primarily Quakers, Baptists, Presbyterians and Congregationalists were persecuted.

    Note: The Period of Cromwell's rule as Lord Protector is known as the Interregnum. (Latin: "between Kings.")        

 The Restoration of Charles II to the throne is appropriately designated the RestorationThose English Colonies chartered during the reign of Charles and later his brother James II are generally designated by historians as Restoration Colonies.

    Six of the thirteen British Colonies had been founded prior to 1640. Six more, the "Restoration Colonies," were established in the Restoration Era (1660-1688.)  Note: Georgia, the last colony, was not founded until 1730, and is not technically a Restoration Colony.

    All the Restoration Colonies were proprietary, that is formed by individuals rather than joint stock companies as had been the New England and Chesapeake Colonies. Most of the "proprietors" were men of means who had supported Charles II and his brother James, the Duke of York (later James II) during their period of exile. Charles owed them a favor, and charters of land in America didn't cost him anything, so he paid them off in land grants. Many proprietors took part in more than one project, for instance, the eight Lord Proprietors of Carolina were also stockholders in the Royal Africa Company, engaged in the African slave trade.  All but Pennsylvania were settled by men with grandiose ideas but little money to bring their dreams into fruition. Because they lacked the funds to import settlers from Europe, the tried to attract settlers from older, existing colonies, including Barbados. New Englanders were the most prized settlers, but few moved farther than New York and New Jersey. Other settlers were former Indentured Servants displaced in Jamaica by the Sugar Revolution. South Carolina was primarily settled by English settlers from the West Indies.

    The Restoration Colonies needed settlers if they were to succeed, so attractive land grants were offered, as well as promised of civil and religious liberties (at least if one were a Christian.) As a result, the Restoration Colonies attracted a conglomeration of religious and ethnic groups..

The Carolinas:  With the restoration of Charles II to the English throne, Colonial expansion resumed. As part reward and part payment for services rendered, Charles awarded land for a proprietary colony to be known as Carolina, (from Carolus, the Latin equivalent of "Charles.")  to eight gentlemen known in South Carolina history as the Lord Proprietors.  The first settlement of three ships arrived in the area of present day Charleston, S.C. on the Ashley River in 1669. The colony was first governed by the "Fundamental Constitution of Carolina," drawn up by John Locke, the secretary of Lord Anthony Ashley- Cooper, the Earl of Shaftsbury.  The constitution was incredibly cumbersome and unworkable; it even provided  for nobility; however, it did encourage large land grants. It also contained a provision for religious toleration primarily to encourage immigration.  As a result, the colony of South Carolina became one of the most tolerant of diverse religions, more so than any other colony except Rhode Island and later Pennsylvania.  Even Jews were accepted.

     Those who settled in the Carolinas first profited from selling timber products to produce ship masts as well as pitch and turpentine. Others raised cattle and hogs which were allowed to run free on open land. (This practice did not endear them to the Indians, as the cattle often ate Indian crops and hogs uprooted fields, and even devoured clams on the shore.) Many African slaves in  South Carolina tended to cattle, and were likely America's first true "cowboys." They soon profited from trade in deer skins with native Indians. Charleston, S.C. was founded in 1680 on the strength of the Indian trade. Subsequently, South Carolina traders joined with friendly Indians in attacking other tribes and capturing slaves, mostly women and children who were sold in Charleston. Until 1715, the Indian slave trade was South Carolina's biggest business; the colony exported more enslaved Indians to the West Indies and other colonies than it imported African slaves.

In one instance, Indians armed with guns and weapons supplied by settlers invaded Spanish territory in Georgia and Florida.  Their intent was to capture slaves, but they also destroyed a number of Spanish Catholic missions in the process and killed several hundred Indians and Spaniards.  Over three hundred Indians were enslaved.  Continued forays into Florida and Georgia almost exterminated native Indian populations there. Said one settler of enslaving Indians, "it both serves to lessen their numbers before the French can arm them, and it is a more Effectual way of Civilizing and Instructing them than all of the efforts used by the French Missionaries."  Two Indian uprisings developed, the Tuscarora War in North Carolina in 1713, and the Yemassee War in South Carolina in 1715.  The latter was an attempt to expel the English, but failed, as the English managed to play the tribes off against one another.  With the Indians fighting each other, settlers had little problem regaining control.    

    In the early 1700's, North and South Carolina became separate colonies. North Carolina continued its trade in naval stores, but South Carolina merchants invested profits made in the Indian slave trade in rice plantations. They learned how to grow it as early as 1690 from slaves who cultivated it in West Africa. Rice proved to be enormously profitable, and became the leading staple crop of the colony. The need for labor to work the rice fields led to a steep increase in the importation of African slaves. By 1700, over 40 per cent of the colony's population were African slaves. By 1730, two thirds of the population were slaves.

    South Carolina became a royal colony in 1719 when the charter granted to the Lord Proprietors was revoked.; North Carolina became a royal colony in 1729.

    New York:  New York, known originally as New Netherland, had originally been explored by Henry Hudson, sailing for the Dutch East India Company. In 1626, Manhattan was purchased from the Indians and a fort established which became the capital, New Amsterdam.

     For those uninformed, the story of Hudson's having purchased the property from the Indians for $24.00 is untrue.  Hudson bragged in a letter that he had pulled this off, but it appears all he did was establish very favorable trading relations with the Indians after getting them drunk with Brandy.

     Note: A Swedish colony was founded in 1638 on the Delaware River near present day Wilmington, but lasted only until 1655, when the Dutch forced them to become part of New Netherland.  It was the Swedes who introduced the log cabin to America.

   The Dutch had attempted, as had the English, to establish a feudal system in America, but it failed also. The availability of free land for anyone doomed any possibility of feudalism, which is dependant upon the scarcity of land for it's survival.     The Dutch West India Company, organized in 1621, took control of the colony, and appointed governors to run it.  The governors were largely either corrupt or inept, and not popular. King Charles II's brother, the Duke of York had cooked up a scheme to take New Netherland from the Dutch, and secured a charter for a proprietary colony.. When English ships invaded in 1664, then Governor Peter Stuyvesant, a  blustery old curmudgeon with a peg leg, was largely ignored when he tried to rally a defense. As a result, the colony was surrendered to the English without firing a shot.

     .     Although the Dutch had a limited colonization period in America, they left an indelible imprint:

  1. Place names:  Haarlem, Wall Street (the wall erected for defense against Indians) and Broadway (Breede Wegh) .
  2. Dutch Family Names: Roosevelt, Van Buren, Renselaer.
  3. Additions to the English American culture and vocabulary:  Words like boss, cookie, crib, snoop, stoop, spook, kill (creek) and Santa Claus as well as Rip Van Winkle.

       The Indians were a substantial factor in the area. Unlike the Indians of other areas, the Indians of the New York area managed to unite into the Iroquois League, comprised of a federation of five tribes with identical languages.  Their presence was so strong that the English and Dutch had to work with them.  They profited from trade with European settlers, which led them to soon deplete their own hunting grounds.  In turn, they attacked other Indians to seize their hunting grounds, and eventually developed a substantial territorial claim in the Northeast.  Indians in the area who were attacked by the Iroquois often formed defensive alliances with the French. In 1690, the French and their allies gained the upper hand, and the Iroquois made peace.  For a number of years, they managed to play the English and French off against each other while protecting their own positions.

   James, Duke of York, intended to rule the colony of New York without an elective assembly, something his brother in England dare not do. His policy made the area less than attractive to English settlers, who preferred Pennsylvania (and later New Jersey) where they had more freedom and civil liberties. He attempted to assimilate the Dutch into English society, but because there were so few English women, the Englishmen in the area married Dutch wives, developed Dutch habits, and thus the Dutch more nearly assimilated the English. The success of New Jersey (described below) at the expense of New York forced the Duke to relent and grant an Assembly to New York in 1683.  The legislature passed A Charter of Liberties designed to attract more settlers by providing for civil liberties, but Pennsylvania had proven a more attractive place to settle. New York retained a heavily Dutch influence through the Glorious Revolution of 1688 when the Dutch William of Orange assumed the throne of England. Divided loyalties to William and James caused tremendous dissention in the colony.

New Jersey: In 1664, the Duke of York granted land between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers to Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley, both of whom were Lord Proprietors of South Carolina.  The territory was named for Jersey, Carteret's home, hence "New Jersey."  It became a royal colony in 1702. It attracted a number of settlers from New York who were not happy with the lack of civil liberties there. 

Pennsylvania and Delaware:  William Penn was the son of an English Admiral of the same name who had helped in the restoration of Charles II to the throne. Upon the elder Penn's death, his son, a student at Oxford who had become a Quaker, inherited a debt of 16,000 owed by Charles. Penn's religion had become something on an embarassment, as the Quakers were considered weird, if not blasphemous. His family was embarrassed when a neighbor described him as "a Quaker again, or some very melancholy thing.  In payment of the debt, and also in friendship, Charles granted Penn a proprietary estate in America which he (Charles) insisted be named for Penn's father, hence Pennsylvania. (In Latin: "Penn's Woods.") Penn often traveled to continental Europe to win converts to Quakerism and attract settlers to Pennsylvania.  Several times he was jailed for his beliefs.

     Quakers; The "Society of Friends" had been founded in England by George Fox approx. 1647 in the midst of the English Civil War..  The nickname "Quaker" was a form of ridicule because the Quaker's claimed to "tremble at the word of the Lord."  They practiced individual inspiration and interpretation of scripture from an "inner light," (a radical departure from Puritanism, which said only ministers could interpret scripture). They denounced Protestant ministers as "hireling priests," and "no better than papists." The Quakers did not practice sacraments, and addressed everyone with the informal "thee" and "thou," rather than using titles. They firmly believed in the equality of all persons and refused to doff their hats to social superiors. (This latter practice, called "the Lamb's war," infuriated proper Englishmen who insisted that everyone know his place in society and doff his cap to his social betters.) They interpreted very literally Jesus' admonition to "turn the other cheek,"  and to "swear not;" therefore they were pacifists and refused to take oaths. Their conduct enraged Catholics and Protestants alike, who always had a good excuse to make war. 

   Equality was the rule in Quaker worship with no one person presiding; however some few members spoke with great effect and became known as "public friends" and occupied special seats in meeting houses. Women enjoyed equality with men, and many became exceptional preachers, which also infuriated the Puritans. One, Mary Dyer, was hanged in New England because she refused to quit preaching. Whereas Puritans saw children as tiny sinners who had to be severely disciplined,  Quakers saw their children as innocents who must be protected. Their families in America were smaller than others, but were considerably more affectionate. The needs of children were paramount to the Quaker family. Marriage outside the society resulted in immediate expulsion. Needless to say, their complete rejection of the Calvinist doctrine of the Puritans often got them into trouble, and they were intensely persecuted in New England.  Several, including Mary Dyer, were hanged.    . 

   There were settlements already in the area at the time of Penn's grant, and he worked vigorously to promote further settlement, publishing reports printed in German, Dutch and French.  By 1681, 1,000 people had settled in the province.  Penn offered land on generous terms, and offered help to the emigrants, which caused the colony to grow rapidly.  He called the settlement on the Schuylkill and Delaware Rivers Philadelphia: "The City of Brotherly Love." 

     Quakers had excellent relationship with the native Indians, a necessity since they arrived unarmed. Penn insisted on purchasing land from the Indians rather than simply taking it.  He learned the Delaware Language, and for 50 years, the Indians and Quakers lived peaceably side by side. The Indians called Penn Miquon, their word for "Quill," (a pun on "Penn.".)   The relationship was so peaceful that Quakers who had to be away from home often left their children in the care of Indians.

     The King's grant to Penn caused the boundary line between Maryland and Pennsylvania to overlap.  In 1684, Lord Baltimore complained that Philadelphia fell within the charter boundary of Maryland, and his claim was soon verified. Later, in 1747, the Penn family settled the dispute by agreeing to a border to be drawn nineteen miles south of the 40th Parallel.  The border was surveyed by two English surveyors:  Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon: Hence the Mason-Dixon Line.

   Penn himself only stayed in Pennsylvania four years; but the Colony soon became a refuge for all religious dissenters, including Quakers, but also Anglicans.  In 1682, Penn was granted the area of Delaware, but in 1701, it was granted the right to choose it's own assembly.

Georgia: Georgia was the last of the British colonies to be established, fifty years after Pennsylvania. It was not a Restoration Colony, as it was established under the reign of George II, the second king of the Hanover Dynasty. George granted the land between the Savannah and Altahama Rivers to twenty one trustees in 1732.  The resident trustee was General James Oglethorpe.  The colony was founded as an philanthropic experiment, but also to serve as a buffer against Spanish Florida, and thus offer protection to the other colonies.  The city of Savannah was settled in 1733.

Georgia was settled by Austrian, German, Swiss and English settlers.  At one time, the colony was more German than English.  It was a successful buffer against Spanish Florida, but otherwise failed.  No one was allowed to own more than 500 acres, and rum and slavery was prohibited. (this to provide for servants who were charity cases). Silk and Wine production were attempted but failed.  Regulations against rum and slavery were ignored, and in 1759, all restrictions were removed.  IN 1753, the charter expired, and Georgia became a royal colony.

English Colonial Success:

   English North America occupied almost the entire Atlantic Coast except for Florida, and extended to the Appalachian Mountains.  British colonization and development superceded that of France and Spain for a number of reasons: